What Are ICT?

Blurton (1999) states,

“Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information”.

These digital technologies include computers, smart phones, printers and even broadcasting technologies such as radio and television (Tinio, 2003) (to name a few) all of which convert and represent information through binary digits (Woodford, 2015).

With the digital information of technologies, material is able to be gathered, processed, manipulated or even produced. Because of this, ICTs are protean (Koehler & Mishra, 2009) that is they are able to be used in various ways and as such are very flexible. ICTs are also unstable (2009), in that technology is continuously developing and so is constantly changing. Finally, ICTs are Opaque (2009) meaning you cannot always see how they work, that is the inner workings are hidden from users (2009).

How do I learn new ICT? That all comes down to my personal schemas regarding ICT. This week I have learned that I might not know technology as much as I originally thought I did, that is to say, I definitely hold misconceptions when it comes to both earlier technologies as well as learning new ones. In order to learn new ICT, existing misconceptions regarding technology needs to be reconstructed. A constructivist approach in which learners take an active role in reorganising their knowledge, promotes reconstruction of knowledge and conceptual change (Davis, 2001). Nussbaum and Novick (1982) suggest a four step Cognitive conflict strategy (creating situations where existing conceptions…are made explicit and then directly challenged to create a state of disequilibrium) (2001), prompting conceptual change

  1. Reveal preconceptions
  2. Discuss and evaluate preconceptions
  3. Create conceptual conflict with those preconceptions
  4. Encourage and guide conceptual reconstructing

Evidently, this strategy I dare say will not only impact my personal conceptual model but is also a fantastic strategy to implement within the classroom, not just for ICT misconceptions but for a variety of misconceptions that students’ may obtain over many different subjects. The Cognitive conflict strategy, I do believe will take time and practice to master, but is a strategy that I will lock away in my pedagogical strategies tool kit.

The above is a personal attempt of explaining what ICTs are and how I learn new ICT.

After completing the set learning path for the week, I had an epiphany. We understand that technologies are ever changing. But I’ve never really thought of how technology has changed us in unexpected ways. And let me tell you, it really gets you thinking.



  • Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70. Retrieved February 29, 2016, from http://www.editlib.org/p/29544
  • Nussbaum, J., & Novick, S. (1982). Alternative frameworks, conceptual conflict and accommodation: Toward a principled teaching strategy.Instructional science,11(3), 183-200.



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